More Biological Definitions of Life

Koshland, D.E. (2002). Special Essay. the seven pillars of life. Science, 295(5563):2215-2216

Seven Features of Life:

1. Program

2. Improvisation (response to environment)

3. Compartmentalization

4. Energy

5. Regeneration

6. Adaptability

7. Seclusion (chemical control and selectivity)

Shapiro, R. (2007). A simpler origin for life. Sci Am, 296(6):46-53

NASA’s working definitions of life: “A self sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian Evolution”


Definitions of Life

Life on Earth by Alonso Ricardo and Jack W. Szostak

“Every living cell, even the simplest bacterium, teems with molecular contraptions that would be the envy of any nanotechnologist”