More Biological Definitions of Life

Koshland, D.E. (2002). Special Essay. the seven pillars of life. Science, 295(5563):2215-2216

Seven Features of Life:

1. Program

2. Improvisation (response to environment)

3. Compartmentalization

4. Energy

5. Regeneration

6. Adaptability

7. Seclusion (chemical control and selectivity)

Shapiro, R. (2007). A simpler origin for life. Sci Am, 296(6):46-53

NASA’s working definitions of life: “A self sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian Evolution”


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